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授权专利(12项目):
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2011  (15 / Total 98 )

  • 1
    Zhou Y, Kim YS, Chakraborty S, Shi J, Gao H, Liu S. 99mTc-labeled cyclic RGD peptides for noninvasive monitoring of tumor integrin alphaVbeta3 expression. Mol Imaging. 2011;10:386-397.
  • 2
    Wang D, Shi J, Tan J, Jin X, Li Q, Kang H, Liu R, Jia B, Huang Y. Synthesis, characterization, and in vivo biodistribution of 125I-labeled Dex-g-PMAGGCONHTyr. Biomacromolecules. 2011;12:1851-1859.

    Abstract

    Dextran graft poly (N-methacryloylglycylglycine) copolymer-tyrosine conjugates (dextran-g-PMAGGCONHTyr) were synthesized and characterized. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) results indicated that the graft copolymers are soluble in pH 7.4 PBS and 0.9% saline solutions. The graft copolymers were labeled with (125)I, and the labeling stability in 0.9% saline solution was investigated. Pharmacokinetics studies showed a rapid clearance of (125)I-labeled graft copolymers from the blood pool. Biodistribution images confirmed the preferable liver and spleen accumulation within 1 h after injection and rapid clearance from all the organs over time. The graft copolymer with molecular weight of 9.8 kDa was eliminated from the kidney significantly faster than those with higher molecular weight. The effect of the numbers of -COOH groups on the graft copolymers on the biodistribution was also investigated. It was found that the graft copolymers with the average number of -COOH groups per glucopyranose unit (DS(-COOH)) of 0.57 and 0.18 are mainly distributed in liver and spleen at 1 h after injection, whereas the graft copolymer with DS(-COOH) of 0.07 is mainly accumulated in kidney.

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bm200194s


  • 3
    Liu Z, Wang F, Chen X. Integrin targeted delivery of radiotherapeutics. Theranostics. 2011;1:201-210.

    Abstract

    Targeted radionuclide therapy, which is based on the selective delivery of a sufficient radiation dose to tumors without significantly affecting normal tissues, is a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of a wide variety of malignancies. Integrins, a family of cell adhesion molecules, play key roles during tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. Among all the integrins, αvβ3 seems to be the most important in the process of tumor angiogenesis. Integrin αvβ3 is highly expressed on activated endothelial cells, new-born vessels as well as some tumor cells, but is not present in resting endothelial cells and most normal organ systems, making it a suitable target for anti-tumor therapy. In this review, we summarize the current development and applications of antibody-, peptide-, and other ligand-based integrin targeted radiotherapeutics for tumor radiation therapy.

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmid/21547160/

  • 4
    Huang J, Cui L, Wang F, Liu Z. PET tracers based on (86)Y. Curr Radiopharm. 2011;4:122-130.

    Abstract

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has become a powerful tool for probing biochemical processes in living subjects. PET imaging depends largely on the development of novel PET tracers labeled with positron-emitting radionuclides. Since the four traditional PET isotopes (18F, 11C, 13N, and 15O) are produced in a cyclotron and are short-lived, their use for long-term observation of biological processes in vivo is limited. In the last decades, extensive research in the development of other unconventional radionuclides (such as 64Cu, 68Ga, 89Zr, 86Y, and 124I) labeled tracers with half-lives complementary to the biological properties of their targeting agents has been conducted. Among these tracers, 86Y-based PET tracers have gained increasing attention since they are ideal surrogates for in vivo determination of biodistribution and dosimetry of therapeutic 90Y (pure β - emitter) pharmaceuticals. In this review article, we will brief introduce the physical characteristics, production, and radiochemistry of 86Y, and will summarize the current 86Y-based PET tracers used for molecular imaging and cancer detection in animal studies and in clinical trials.

    http://www.eurekaselect.com/94484/article

  • 5
    Cao Q, Liu S, Niu G, Chen K, Yan Y, Liu Z, Chen X. Phage display peptide probes for imaging early response to bevacizumab treatment. Amino Acids. 2011;41:1103-1112.

    Abstract

    Early evaluation of cancer response to a therapeutic regimen can help increase the effectiveness of treatment schemes and, by enabling early termination of ineffective treatments, minimize toxicity, and reduce expenses. Biomarkers that provide early indication of tumor therapy response are urgently needed. Solid tumors require blood vessels for growth, and new anti-angiogenic agents can act by preventing the development of a suitable blood supply to sustain tumor growth. The purpose of this study is to develop a class of novel molecular imaging probes that will predict tumor early response to an anti-angiogenic regimen with the humanized vascular endothelial growth factor antibody bevacizumab. Using a bevacizumab-sensitive LS174T colorectal cancer model and a 12-mer bacteriophage (phage) display peptide library, a bevacizumab-responsive peptide (BRP) was identified after six rounds of biopanning and tested in vitro and in vivo. This 12-mer peptide was metabolically stable and had low toxicity to both endothelial cells and tumor cells. Near-infrared dye IRDye800-labeled BRP phage showed strong binding to bevacizumab-treated tumors, but not to untreated control LS174T tumors. In addition, both IRDye800- and (18)F-labeled BRP peptide had significantly higher uptake in tumors treated with bevacizumab than in controls treated with phosphate-buffered saline. Ex vivo histopathology confirmed the specificity of the BRP peptide to bevacizumab-treated tumor vasculature. In summary, a novel 12-mer peptide BRP selected using phage display techniques allowed non-invasive visualization of early responses to anti-angiogenic treatment. Suitably labeled BRP peptide may be potentially useful pre-clinically and clinically for monitoring treatment response.

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00726-010-0548-9


  • 6
    Jia B, Liu Z, Zhu Z, Shi J, Jin X, Zhao H, Li F, Liu S*, Wang F*. Blood Clearance Kinetics, Biodistribution and Radiation Dosimetry of a Kit-formulated Integrin αvβ3-selective Radiotracer 99mTc-3PRGD2 in non-human primates. Mol Imaging Bio. 2011, 13(4):730-736.

    Abstract

    PURPOSE:

    (99m)Tc-3PRGD(2) is a (99m)Tc-labeled dimeric cyclic RGD peptide with increased receptor binding affinity and improved kinetics for in vivo imaging of integrin α(v)β(3) expression in nude mouse model. To accelerate its clinical translation, we reported here the evaluation of the kit-formulated (99m)Tc-3PRGD(2) in healthy cynomolgus primates for its blood clearance kinetics, biodistribution, and radiation dosimetry.

    PROCEDURES:

    Healthy cynomolgus primates (4.1 ± 0.7 kg, n = 5) were anesthetized, and the venous blood samples were collected via a femoral vein catheter at various time points after injection of ~555 MBq of (99m)Tc-3PRGD(2). Serial whole-body scans were performed with a dual-head single photon emission computed tomography system after administering ~555 MBq of (99m)Tc-3PRGD(2) in the non-human primates, and the radiation dosimetry estimate was calculated.

    RESULTS:

    (99m)Tc-3PRGD(2) could be easily obtained from freeze-dried kits with high radiochemical purity (>95%) and high specific activity (~5 Ci/μmol). (99m)Tc-3PRGD(2) had a rapid blood clearance with less than 1% of the initial radioactivity remaining in the blood circulation at 60 min postinjection. No adverse reactions were observed up to 4 weeks after the repeated dosing. The whole-body images exhibited high kidney uptake of (99m)Tc-3PRGD(2) and high radioactivity accumulation in the bladder, demonstrating the rapid renal clearance of this tracer. The highest radiation doses of (99m)Tc-3PRGD(2) were found in the kidneys (13.2 ± 1.08 μGy/MBq) and the bladder wall (33.1 ± 1.91 μGy/MBq).

    CONCLUSION:

    (99m)Tc-3PRGD(2) can be readily available using the kit formulation. This tracer is safe and well tolerated, and no adverse events occurred in non-human primates. Further clinical testing and translation of (99m)Tc-3PRGD(2) for noninvasive imaging of integrin α(v)β(3) in humans are warranted.

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11307-010-0385-y

  • 7
    Liu Z, Jia B, Zhao H, Chen X, Wang F*. Specific Targeting of Human Integrin αvβ3 with 111In-Labeled AbegrinTM in Nude Mouse Models. Mol Imaging Bio. 2011, 13(1):112-120.
  • 8
    Liu Z#, Shi J#, Jia B*, Yu Z, Liu Y, Zhao Y, Li F, Tian J, Chen X, Liu S, Wang F*. 90Y-Labeled Two Multimeric RGD Peptides RGD4 and 3PRGD2 for Integrin Targeted Radionuclide Therapy. Mol Pharm. 2011, 8(2):591–599.

    Abstract

    We have recently developed a series of new Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) dimeric peptides for specific targeting of integrin α(v)β₃ with enhanced tumor uptake and improved pharmacokinetics. In this study, we investigated ⁹⁰Y-labeled RGD tetramer (RGD4) and the new type of RGD dimer (3PRGD2), for the radionuclide therapy of integrin α(v)β₃-positive tumors. Biodistribution and gamma imaging studies of ¹¹¹In labeled RGD4 and 3PRGD2 were performed. Groups of nude mice were used to determine maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of ⁹⁰Y-DOTA-RGD4 and ⁹⁰Y-DOTA-3PRGD2. The radionuclide therapeutic efficacy of ⁹⁰Y-DOTA-RGD4 and ⁹⁰Y-DOTA-3PRGD2 was evaluated in U87MG tumor-bearing nude mice. The U87MG tumor uptake of ¹¹¹In-DOTA-3PRGD2 was slightly lower than that of the ¹¹¹In-DOTA-RGD4 (e.g., 6.13 ± 0.82%ID/g vs 6.43 ± 1.6%ID/g at 4 h postinjection), but the uptake of ¹¹¹In-DOTA-3PRGD2 in normal organs, such as liver and kidneys, was much lower than that of ¹¹¹In-DOTA-RGD4, which resulted in much higher tumor-to-nontumor ratios and lower toxicity. The MTD of ⁹⁰Y-DOTA-RGD4 in nude mice is less than 44.4 MBq, while the MTD of ⁹⁰Y-DOTA-3PRGD2 in mice is more than 55.5 MBq. ⁹⁰Y-DOTA-3PRGD2 administration exhibited a similar tumor inhibition effect as compared with ⁹⁰Y-DOTA-RGD4 at the same dose. The tumor vasculature in the ⁹⁰Y-DOTA-3PRGD2 treatment group was much less than the control groups. Radionuclide therapy studies exhibited that both ⁹⁰Y-DOTA-RGD4 and ⁹⁰Y-DOTA-3PRGD2 caused significant tumor growth delay in the U87MG tumor model. Compared to ⁹⁰Y-DOTA-RGD4, the low accumulation of ⁹⁰Y-DOTA-3PRGD2 in normal organs led to lower toxicity and higher MTD in nude mice, which would make it more suitable for high dose or multiple-dose regimens, in order to achieve maximum therapeutic efficacy.

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/mp100403y

  • 9
    Wang D, Shi J, Tan J, Jin X, Li Q, Kang H, Liu R*, Jia B*, Huang Y*. Synthesis, Characterization, and In Vivo Biodistribution of 125I-Labeled Dex-g-PMAGGCONHTyr. Biomacromolecules. 2011, 12(5):1851–1859.

    Abstract

    Dextran graft poly (N-methacryloylglycylglycine) copolymer-tyrosine conjugates (dextran-g-PMAGGCONHTyr) were synthesized and characterized. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) results indicated that the graft copolymers are soluble in pH 7.4 PBS and 0.9% saline solutions. The graft copolymers were labeled with (125)I, and the labeling stability in 0.9% saline solution was investigated. Pharmacokinetics studies showed a rapid clearance of (125)I-labeled graft copolymers from the blood pool. Biodistribution images confirmed the preferable liver and spleen accumulation within 1 h after injection and rapid clearance from all the organs over time. The graft copolymer with molecular weight of 9.8 kDa was eliminated from the kidney significantly faster than those with higher molecular weight. The effect of the numbers of -COOH groups on the graft copolymers on the biodistributionwas also investigated. It was found that the graft copolymers with the average number of -COOH groups per glucopyranose unit (DS(-COOH)) of 0.57 and 0.18 are mainly distributed in liver and spleen at 1 h after injection, whereas the graft copolymer with DS(-COOH) of 0.07 is mainly accumulatedin kidney.

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bm200194s

  • 10
    Ma Q, Ji B, Jia B, Gao S, Ji T, Wang X, Han Z, Zhao G. Differential diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodules using 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 scintigraphy. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2011, 38(12): 2145-52.

    Abstract

    PURPOSE:

    Targeting of integrin α(ν)β(3) with molecular imaging agents offers great potential in early detection and monitoring of tumour angiogenesis. Recently, an RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) tracer, (99m)Tc-3P(4)-RGD(2), with high affinity to integrin α(ν)β(3) and in vivo tumour uptake was developed. In this study, we evaluate the feasibility of this novel radiotracer in the noninvasive differentiation of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs).

    METHODS:

    Twenty-one patients with SPNs on CT were studied scintigraphically after administration of (99m)Tc-3P(4)-RGD(2) with a dose of 939 ±  118 MBq. Image interpretation using a 5-point scale was performed by one thoracic radiologist for CT and three nuclear medicine radiologists for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Scintigraphic images were also analysed semiquantitatively by calculating tumour to normal tissue ratio (T/N). The "gold standard" was based on the histopathological diagnosis of the surgical samples from all recruited patients. A fraction of the samples were analysed immunohistochemically for integrin α(v)β(3) expression.

    RESULTS:

    Among the 21 SPNs, 15 (71%) were diagnosed as malignant and 6 (29%) were benign. The mean size for SPNs was 2.2 ±  0.6 cm. The sensitivity and specificity for CT interpretation, SPECT visual and semiquantitative analysis were 80/67%, 100/67% and 100/67%, respectively. All SPNs classified as indeterminate by CT were correctly diagnosed by (99m)Tc-3P(4)-RGD(2) scintigraphy. The empirical receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) areas were 0.811 [95% confidence interval (CI) 58-95%] for CT, 0.833 (95% CI 61-96%) for SPECT and 0.844 (95% CI 62-96%) for T/N ratios, respectively. Immunohistochemistry confirmed α(ν)β(3) expression in malignant and benign nodules with uptake in (99m)Tc-3P(4)-RGD(2) scintigraphy.

    CONCLUSION:

    In this first-in-human study, we demonstrated the feasibility of using (99m)Tc-3P(4)-RGD(2) scintigraphy in differentiating SPNs. This procedure appears to be highly sensitive in detection of malignant SPNs. SPECT visual analysis seems to be sufficient for characterization of SPNs.

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00259-011-1901-2

  • 11
    Ananias HJ, Yu Z, Dierckx RA, van der Wiele C, Helfrich W, Wang F, Yan Y, Chen X, de Jong IJ, Elsinga PH. 99mTechnetium-HYNIC(tricine/TPPTS)-Aca-Bombesin(7-14) as a Targeted Imaging Agent with MicroSPECT in a PC-3 Prostate Cancer Xenograft Model. Mol Pharm. 2011, 8(4):1165-73.

    Abstract

    The peptide bombesin (BN) and derivates thereof show high binding affinity for the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR), which is highly expressed in primary and metastasized prostate cancer. We have synthesized a new BN-based radiopharmaceutical (99m)technetium-HYNIC(tricine/TPPTS)-Aca-BN(7-14) ((99m)Tc-HABN) and evaluated its GRPR targeting properties in vitro and in a xenograft tumor model for humanprostate cancer in athymic mice. (99m)Tc-HABN was synthesized, and its lipophilicity and stability were investigated. The IC(50), internalization and efflux properties were determined in vitro using the GRPR expressing human prostate cancer cell line PC-3. (99m)Tc-HABN biodistribution andmicroSPECT imaging were performed in PC-3 tumor-bearing athymic mice. (99m)Tc-HABN was prepared with high labeling yield (>90%), high radiochemical purity (>95%) and a specific activity of ~19.8 MBq/nmol. The partition coefficient log D value was -1.60 ± 0.06. (99m)Tc-HABN proved to be stable in human serum for 6 h. The IC50 of HYNIC-Aca-BN(7-14) was 12.81 ± 0.14 nM. Incubation of PC-3 cells with (99m)Tc-HABN demonstrated rapid cellular internalization and a long intracellular retention time. When mice were injected with (99m)Tc-HABN, the activity was predominantly cleared via the kidneys. Uptake in the tumor was 2.24 ± 0.64% ID/g after 30 min, with a steady decrease during the 4 h study period. In vivo experiments with a blocking agent showed GRPR mediated uptake. (99m)Tc-HABN microSPECT imaging resulted in clear delineation of the tumor. (99m)Tc-HABN is a novel BN-based radiopharmaceutical that proved to be suitable for targeted imaging of prostate cancer with microSPECT using the human prostate cancer cell line PC-3 in a xenograft mouse model.

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/mp200014h

  • 12
    Ma X, Liu Z, Yang X, Gao Q, Zhu S, Qin C, Liu K, Zhang B, Han D, Wang F*, Tian J*. Dual-modality Monitoring of Tumor Response to Cyclophosphamide Therapy in Mice with Bioluminescence Imaging and Small-animal Positron Emission Tomography. Mol Imaging. 2011. 10(4):278-83.

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to noninvasively monitor the therapeutic efficacy of cyclophosphamide (CTX) in a mouse model by dual-modalitymolecular imagingpositron emission tomography (PET) and bioluminescence imaging (BLI). Firefly luciferase (fLuc) transfected HCC-LM3-fLuc human hepatocellular carcinoma cells were injected subcutaneously into BALB/c nude mice to establish the experimental tumor model. Two groups of HCC-LM3-fLuc tumor-bearing mice (n  =  7 per group) were treated with saline or CTX (100 mg/kg on days 0, 2, 5, and 7). BLI and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) PET scans were done to evaluate the treatment efficacy. CTX induced a 25.25 ± 13.13% and 35.91 ± 25.85% tumorgrowth inhibition rate on days 9 and 12 posttreatment, respectively, as determined by BLI. A good linear correlation was found between the tumorsizes measured by caliper and the BLI signals determined by optical imaging (R(2)  =  .9216). (18)F-FDG imaging revealed a significant uptake reduction in the tumors of the CTX-treated group compared to that in the saline control group (5.30 ± 1.97 vs 3.00 ± 2.11% ID/g) on day 16 after CTX treatment. Dual-modality molecular imaging using BLI and small-animal PET can play important roles in the process of chemotherapy and will provide noninvasive and reliable monitoring of the therapeutic response.

    http://dx.doi.org/10.2310/7290.2010.00041

  • 13
    Shi J, Kim YS, Chakraborty S, Zhou Y, Wang F, Liu, S. Improving Tumor Uptake and Excretion Kinetics of 111In-Labeled Cyclic RGDPeptide Dimers with PEG4 and G3 Linkers. Amino Acids. 2011, 41(5), 1059-1070.

    Abstract

    Radiolabeled cyclic RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) peptides represent a new class of radiotracers with potential for early tumor detection and noninvasive monitoring of tumor metastasis and therapeutic response in cancer patients. This article describes the synthesis of two cyclic RGD peptide dimer conjugates, DOTA-PEG(4)-E[PEG(4)-c(RGDfK)](2) (DOTA-3PEG(4)-dimer: DOTA = 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid; PEG(4) = 15-amino-4,7,10,13-tetraoxapentadecanoic acid) and DOTA-G(3)-E[G(3)-c(RGDfK)](2) (DOTA-3G(3)-dimer: G(3) = Gly-Gly-Gly). Integrin alpha(v)beta(3) binding affinities of cyclic RGD peptides were determined by competitive displacement of (125)I-echistatin bound to U87MG human glioma cells and follow the order of DOTA-E{E[c(RGDfK)](2)}(2) (DOTA-tetramer: IC(50) = 10 +/- 2 nM) > DOTA-3G(3)-dimer (IC(50) = 62 +/- 6 nM) approximately DOTA-3PEG(4)-dimer (IC(50) = 74 +/- 3 nM) > DOTA-E[c(RGDfK)](2) (DOTA-dimer: IC(50) = 102 +/- 5 nM). The addition of PEG(4) and G(3) linkers between two cyclic RGD motifs in DOTA-3G(3)-dimer and DOTA-3PEG(4)-dimer makes it possible for them to achieve the simultaneous integrin alpha(v)beta(3) binding in a bivalent fashion. Both (64)Cu(DOTA-3PEG(4)-dimer) and (64)Cu(DOTA-3G(3)-dimer) were prepared in high yield with specific activity being >50 Ci/mmol. Biodistribution and imaging studies were performed in athymic nude mice bearing U87MG human glioma xenografts. The results from those studies show that PEG(4) and G(3) linkers are particularly useful for improving tumor uptake and clearance kinetics of (64)Cu radiotracers from the nontumor organs, such as kidneys, liver, and lungs. There is a linear relationship between the tumor size and %ID tumor uptake, suggesting that (64)Cu(DOTA-3PEG(4)-dimer) and (64)Cu(DOTA-3PEG(4)-dimer) might be useful for noninvasive monitoring of tumor growth or shrinkage during antiangiogenic therapy. MicroPET imaging data clearly demonstrate the utility of (64)Cu(DOTA-3G(3)-dimer) as a new PET radiotracer for imaging integrin alpha(v)beta(3)-positive tumors.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00726-009-0439-0

  • 14
    Shi J, Liu TW, Chen J, Green D, Jaffray D, Wilson BC, Wang F, Zheng G*. Transforming a Targeted Porphyrin Theranostic Agent into a PET Imaging Probe for Cancer. Theranostics. 2011, 1:363-70.

    Abstract

    Porphyrin based photosensitizers are useful agents for photodynamic therapy (PDT) and fluorescence imaging of cancerPorphyrins are also excellent metal chelators forming highly stable metallo-complexes making them efficient delivery vehicles for radioisotopes. Here we investigated the possibility of incorporating (64)Cu into a porphyrin-peptide-folate (PPF) probe developed previously as folate receptor (FR) targeted fluorescent/PDTagent, and evaluated the potential of turning the resulting (64)Cu-PPF into a positron emission tomography (PETprobe for cancer imaging. Noninvasive PET imaging followed by radioassay evaluated the tumor accumulation, pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of (64)Cu-PPF. (64)Cu-PPF uptake in FR-positive tumors was visible on small-animal PET images with high tumor-to-muscle ratio (8.88 ± 3.60) observed after 24 h. Competitive blocking studies confirmed the FR-mediated tracer uptake by the tumor. The ease of efficient (64)Cu-radiolabeling of PPF while retaining its favorable biodistribution, pharmacokinetics and selective tumor uptake, provides a robust strategy to transform tumor-targeted porphyrin-based photosensitizers into PET imaging probes.

    http://www.thno.org/v01p0363.htm

  • 15
    Shi J, Zhou Y, Chakraborty S, Kim YS, Jia B, Wang F, Liu S. Evaluation of 111In-Labeled Cyclic RGD Peptides: Effects of Peptide and Linker Multiplicity on Their Tumor Uptake, Excretion Kinetics and Metabolic Stability. Theranostics. 2011, 1:322-40.

    Abstract

    PURPOSE:

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the valence of cyclic RGD peptides, P-RGD (PEG(4)-c(RGDfK): PEG(4) = 15-amino-4,710,13-tetraoxapentadecanoic acid), P-RGD(2) (PEG(4)-E[c(RGDfK)](2), 2P-RGD(4) (E{PEG(4)-E[c(RGDfK)](2)}(2), 2P4G-RGD(4) (E{PEG(4)-E[G(3)-c(RGDfK)](2)}(2): G(3) = Gly-Gly-Gly) and 6P-RGD(4) (E{PEG(4)-E[PEG(4)-c(RGDfK)](2)}(2)) in binding to integrin α(v)β(3), and to assess the impact of peptide and linker multiplicity on biodistribution properties, excretion kinetics and metabolic stability of their corresponding (111)In radiotracers.

    METHODS:

    Five new RGD peptide conjugates (DOTA-P-RGD (DOTA =1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetracetic acid), DOTA-P-RGD(2), DOTA-2P-RGD(4), DOTA-2P4G-RGD(4), DOTA-6P-RGD(4)), and their (111)In complexes were prepared. The integrin α(v)β(3) binding affinity of cyclic RGD conjugates were determined by a competitive displacement assay against (125)I-c(RGDyK) bound to U87MG human glioma cells. Biodistribution, planar imaging and metabolism studies were performed in athymic nude mice bearing U87MG human glioma xenografts.

    RESULTS:

    The integrin α(v)β(3) binding affinity of RGD conjugates follows the order of: DOTA-6P-RGD(4) (IC(50) = 0.3 ± 0.1 nM) ~ DOTA-2P4G-RGD(4) (IC(50) = 0.2 ± 0.1 nM) ~ DOTA-2P-RGD(4) (IC(50) = 0.5 ± 0.1 nM) > DOTA-3P-RGD(2) (DOTA-PEG(4)-E[PEG(4)-c(RGDfK)](2): IC(50) = 1.5 ± 0.2 nM) > DOTA-P-RGD(2) (IC(50) = 5.0 ± 1.0 nM) >> DOTA-P-RGD (IC(50) = 44.3 ± 3.5 nM) ~ c(RGDfK) (IC(50) = 49.9 ± 5.5 nM) >> DOTA-6P-RGK(4) (IC(50) = 437 ± 35 nM). The fact that DOTA-6P-RGK(4) had much lower integrin α(v)β(3) binding affinity than DOTA-6P-RGD(4) suggests that the binding of DOTA-6P-RGD(4) to integrin α(v)β(3) is RGD-specific. This conclusion is consistent with the lower tumor uptake for (111)In(DOTA-6P-RGK(4)) than that for (111)In(DOTA-6P-RGD(4)). It was also found that the G(3) and PEG(4) linkers between RGD motifs have a significant impact on the integrin α(v)β(3)-targeting capability, biodistribution characteristics, excretion kinetics and metabolic stability of (111)In-labeled cyclic RGDpeptides.

    CONCLUSION:

    On the basis of their integrin α(v)β(3) binding affinity and tumor uptake of their corresponding (111)In radiotracers, it was conclude that 2P-RGD(4), 2P4G-RGD(4) and 6P-RGD(4) are most likely bivalent in binding to integrin α(v)β(3), and extra RGD motifs might contribute to the longtumor retention times of (111)In(DOTA-2P-RGD(4)),( 111)In(DOTA-2P4G-RGD(4)) and (111)In(DOTA-6P-RGD(4)) than that of (111)In(DOTA-3P-RGD(3)) at 72 h p.i. Among the (111)In-labeled cyclic RGD tetramers evaluated in the glioma model, (111)In(DOTA-2P4G-RGD(4)) has very high tumoruptake with the best tumor/kidney and tumor/liver ratios, suggesting that (90)Y(DOTA-2P4G-RGD(4)) and (177)Lu(DOTA-2P4G-RGD(4)) might have the potential for targeted radiotherapy of integrin α(v)β(3)-positive tumors.

    http://www.thno.org/v01p0322.htm

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